Recently Dr. Gabrielle Jordan, a neuroscientist from the Newcastle University, announced that she identified a true tetrachromat : a human who has “super human” abilities to see and identify hundreds of millions of color hues which regular people normally can’t do.
Whilst normally humans are trichromats, meaning they have three types of color detecting cones in the retina (blue, green and red), the tetrachromat, as the name suggests, has four types of these cells and the difference in perception is absolutely amazing, according to scientists.
On the other hand, color-blind people have only two types of cones which is why they are unable to perceive or differentiate certain colors.
Since this condition is genetic and is carried by the X chromosome, it is passed from mother to son. There are color blind women but it is not possible for a male to be tetrachromat.
About 8% of the men worldwide have some sort of color deficiency and it is usually passed on by mothers who either have two identical cones or have four of them. After 20 years of research by testing the mothers of color-blind men, the scientists were able to locate a tetrachromatic woman who happens to be a doctor and lives near Newcastle. Dr. Jordan claims that this “super vision” may be a great advantage for the unnamed tetrochromatic doctor because of the ability to perceive every little change in the hue of a patient’s skin and thus easily spot medical problems.